Table from his Short Essay on Political Prudence (1710)




Comparison of the virtues and vices Mirror
of knowledge of one's self and others
The three main vices
or ruling passions
The three main virtues or moderated passions
according to voluptuousness
or immoderate passion for pleasures
or immoderate passion for glory and honour
or immoderate passion for riches
temperance, modesty, contentment
voluptuousness gluttony (i.e. passion for eating and drinking), lechery (debauchery) asceticism, abstinence from women, insensitiveness hunger, thirst, a hater of women, bestial urges soberness, good housekeeping, chastity
its signs voluptuous magnificence punctuality niggardly saving
its affiliates sluggishness, idleness restlessness donkey-work alacrity, dexterity
ambition servile, submissive haughty, arrogant, contemptuous bumptious, vainglorious even-tempered, friendly
its signs impatient, timid violent, audacious deceitful, cruel hearty generosity
its affiliates rash anger which does not last, tenderheartedness fierce rage, revengeful hidden anger, secret revengefulness patience, contempt for injustice one suffered
avarice precipitance, readiness to talk wilful, too taciturn deceit, lies, simulation sincerity, discretion
its signs vile extravagance affected open-handedness merciless, niggardly benevolent, liberal
its affiliates infamous compliance, untimely mercy audacious and violent in one's service, vexed envious, malicious merciful, sincere and uninterested service
intellectual faculties ingenuity, good inventions, the art of poetry penetrating judgement, proper conduct, political philosophy excellent memory, connection of concepts, mathematics prudence, good advice



Christian Thomasius, Kurzer Entwurff der politischen Klugheit (Halle, 1710), transl. O. Simons 2005.