Coins of Brabant - the Spanish Netherlands - were valid in Antwerp, Brussels, Doornik, Arras, Maastricht, 's Hertogenbosch. The pond Vlaams was, however, an accepted standard referred to from Brabant through the Netherlands up to Hamburg.
The value of the louis d'or, issued from the reform of 1640/41 to 1793, fluctuated (for most of the time) between 10 and 30 livres. Foreign traders accepted the coin at divers rates following their own changing perspectives on the value of gold and the quality of the coin. See Newton's Assessment of
© Matthias Böhne / Olaf Simons, 2004